Wood grade is described as the visual of natural wood. Wood grade is evaluated along a wide spectrum that ranges from very uniform to significant color variations, streakers, short lengths, open knots, and worm holes.
Here is a list of the different wood grades, their characteristics, and allowable defects:
1st Quality/A Grade –
Wood is cut from the center of the log and they have a highly uniform appearance with few knots. The sap content of the wood is low so color variations are minimal. After finishing, the face of the boards have a clean appearance.
Allowable defects – Natural color variations, off-color streaks 6 inches in length, and occasional very small knots or pin-worm holes.
2nd Quality/B Grade –
The planks will have more wood characters that are normal to the species, but the face of the boards will still be even and smooth after filling and finishing.
Allowable defects – Small worm holes, season and kiln checks, dime-size broken knots, larger open knots if they are properly filled and finished, and some sapwood, torn grains, and burns.
C Grade/Mill Run –
This grade of wood will have more color, bigger knots, and creamy-colored sapwood. There will also be some unfilled or unfinished open characteristics on the face of the planks. The boxes of this type of wood will also have shorter pieces.
Allowable defects – Some finish irregularities, bubbles, small skips, lines, stain, color variations, and surface handling scratches.
This grade has shorter board lengths, more color variations, small dings, and other quality imperfections because of machining issues. This wood grade has more than a 10% waste factor.
Allowable defects – A small amount of unfilled knots, and small finish defects such as skips, color variations, scratches, and bubbles.
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